Both providing infrastructure investments, sometimes in direct competition
Although not clearly visible, competition between the United States and Australia in infrastructure cooperation in ASEAN exists. This can be seen from one form of infrastructure cooperation that focuses on the same goal: the development of ASEAN smart cities. As outlined above, the United States and ASEAN have collaborations that focus in this field through the U.S.-ASEAN Smart Cities Partnership (USASCP), which aims to build smart cities that use data-based technology to innovate and manage city resources. Meanwhile Australia and ASEAN also collaborate in the sector, as the ASEAN-Australian Smart Cities project aims to create a city worthy of living for both regions.